Dairy logistics: a tutorial
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This paper discusses fundamental issues in dairy logistics in a tutorial format. We summarize findings of more than twenty student groups who carried out independent literature surveys and interviewed professionals in the industry. The critical issues in carrying out dairy products logistics, the logistics strategies that are employed by dairy producers in the world and some newly introduced products in the industry and in what ways the introduction of these new products changes the logistics operations are pointed out. The importance of hygiene, cooling, time, humidity, cost, distance, flexibility and meeting the demand is emphasized under the subtitle of critical issues. Except those critical issues, there are some others like short shelf life, quality, emulsion, pasteurization, UHT which depend on the characteristics of the milk and milk products. Logistics strategies in dairy industry are studied by dividing it into two subtitles: the ones that are used in the world and the ones in Turkey. A benchmarking between Turkey and theworld is also included at the end. As the variety of milk and milk products increase day by day, the new ingredients of new products also affects the transportation plans. Those impacts are also discussed as a part of our paper. Some descriptive drawings and figures are also embodied. Throughout this paper, only the production, warehousing and transportation of milk, cheese, yoghurt, and similar dairy products are discussed. Ice-cream especially is set out of the scope as it completely differs from actual dairy products as milk, cheese and yoghurt in the means of production and distribution.