The internet of things security: A survey encompassing unexplored areas and new insights
Esther Omolara, Abiodun
Isaac Abiodun, Oludare
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The cosmic evolution of the Internet of things (IoTs) in par with its realization in all spheres of life undertakings, mandates continuous research pursuits in IoT and its associated components. While the rapid evolution of IoTs has facilitated monumental opportunities for humanity, it has also acted as a catalyst precipitating diverse security issues. Cybercrimes have been on the rise as criminals and hackers continue to take advantage of IoT's security loopholes and vulnerabilities. The enormity of the attacks has not only been damaging to the quality of life, but it poses a disservice and an unquantifiable risk to human safety. Thus, a timely and comprehensive review, analysis and investigation of the security of IoTs is crucial. Through a systematic literature review of over 200 articles, we set out the latest findings and trends to provide new insights into the security of IoTs, taking cognizant of its social, economic, technical and legal implications, which will be beneficial to researchers, manufacturers, individuals, organizations, and governments. Although many studies reviewing the state of IoT exist in the literature, no studies shape the area of its security well. Hence, there is currently no study that provides an in-depth survey of the emerging security concerns of IoT from diverse perspectives and in tandem with the current condition of the global world today. Compared to other related reviews on the security of IoTs, this survey encompasses much more technical angles to the security of IoT. It begins with the review of the concept of IoTs, the assessments of its industrial development trends, revolutionary paradigms and updated security of the IoT. Key challenges in the security of blockchain technology, a recent spike in distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks due to the COVID-19 pandemic are sensitive areas that have remained untouched by previous review works. Additionally, politics and security of electoral votes, forensic issues in the IoT era and much more are some of the new depths missing in the literature of IoT security. Thus, a huge divide in the total adoption and actualization of IoT in diverse areas of human endeavour. This review formalizes the IoT concept, illuminating deep insights into possible solutions to the heterogeneous nature of IoT's security challenges, emerging issues, gaps, opportunities, foresight, and recommendations.