Durability and Compressive Strength of High Cement Replacement Ratio Self-Consolidating Concrete
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This study examines durability and mechanical properties of sustainable self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in which 80% of the cement is replaced with combinations of recycled industrial by-products including fly ash, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The water to binder (w/b) ratio of SCC mixes studies was maintained at 0.36. The study proposes empirical relationships to predict 28-day compressive strengths based on the results of three-day and seven-day compressive strengths. In addition, the chloride penetration resistance of the various sustainable SCC mixes was determined after three days, seven days, and 28 days of moist curing of concrete standards. It was concluded that fly ash, silica fume, and GGBS contribute favorably to enhancing strength development, fresh properties, and durability of SCC in comparison to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The compressive strength of the sustainable SCC mixes falls within ranges suitable for structural engineering applications. Replacing cement with 15% silica fume produced a 28-day average compressive strength of 95.3 MPa, which is 44.2% higher than the control mix. Replacing cement with 15% or 20% silica fume reduced the chloride ion permeability to very low amounts compared to high permeability in a control mix.